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          您現在的位置:首頁 > 教育學論文 > 德育論文 >
          淺談初中歷史教學中如何融入德育教育
          發布時間:2018-10-23
            摘要: 初中生是思想趨向成熟的起步階段, 在此階段引導學生建立正向的、積極的世界觀、人生觀和價值觀非常重要。初中中國史、世界史許多內容蘊涵著豐富的德育資源, 與初中德育課教學內容是貼切吻合的。二者可以相互結合, 做到以史論道, 以史育德。
           
            關鍵詞: 初中歷史; 初中思想品德; 教學聯系;
          德育論文
           
            初中階段是人生的轉折點, 學生有著強烈的求知欲, 對事物充滿著好奇心, 時刻想著從中學習。這一階段也是思想趨向成熟的起步階段, 是奠定世界觀、人生觀和價值觀的黃金時期。引導和培育初中生建立正向、積極的世界觀、人生觀和價值觀, 是這個階段的根本教育目的。古人很早就認識到“以史為鑒”的道理, 個人、國家和民族都可以從歷史的長河中得到許多有益的啟示。初中中國史、世界史許多內容蘊涵著豐富而深刻的德育道理, 與初中德育課教學內容是貼切吻合的。二者可以相互結合, 做到以史論道, 以史育德。
           
            一、中國歷史中的思想品德教育
           
            1. 愛國主義教育
           
            初中歷史七年級上冊第17課《昌盛的秦漢文化 (二) 》, 全面介紹了陜西出土的兵馬俑的情況。教材通過描繪兵馬俑豐富的表情、逼真的神態、氣勢磅礴的宏大場面, 展示了我國悠久的歷史文化。源遠流長、博大精深的民族文化是當今中國文化自信的基石。
           
            初中歷史七年級下冊第8課《輝煌的隋唐文化 (二) 》介紹我國的絲綢之路。敦煌莫高窟中精美絕倫的壁畫和生動形象的塑像, 是世界藝術史上的奇跡。自從1903年打開密室后, 無數價值連城的文物被外國列強所瓜分, 成為我國歷史上一段傷心的往事, 以此教育學生勿忘國恥, 興我中華。
           
            初中歷史七年級下冊第22課《時代特點鮮明的明清文化 (二) 》, 詳細介紹了我國明長城東起鴨綠江, 西到嘉峪關, 曲折蜿蜒3000多公里, 氣勢恢宏。長城是世界上最浩大的歷史工程, 凝集著我國古代勞動人民智慧。
           
            我國具有完整的輝煌歷史, 是所有其他文明古國所沒有的, 這樣的歷史特點更能激發出民族的自豪感和自尊心。
           
            2. 人生觀教育
           
            初中歷史七年級下冊第12課《蒙古的興起和元朝的建立》, 介紹文天祥的事跡。他的《過零丁洋》一詩中有一句“人生自古誰無死, 留取丹心照汗青”, 充分表達了寧死不屈的精神和崇高的氣節。這部分內容融歷史、語文、德育、時政于一體。初中語文八年下冊第25課有《過零丁洋》一詩, 文天祥筆下的“零丁洋”正是港珠澳大橋的建設位置———伶仃洋。2018年元旦前夜, 港珠澳大橋全線亮燈, 標志著這個舉世矚目的工程具備通車條件。在中央電視臺的直播報道中, 伶仃洋這個詞不斷被提起, 而港珠澳大橋的原名正是“伶仃洋大橋”。
           
            初中歷史七年級上冊第14課《匈奴的興起與漢朝的和戰》, 介紹了“昭君出塞”的故事。為了漢與匈奴的友好相處, 王昭君遠嫁匈奴, 使得兩個政權邊境太平了數十年。王昭君為了人民和平, 值得后人大力歌頌與學習。
           
            初中歷史七年級下冊第21課《時代特點鮮明的明清文化 (一) 》, 介紹了明朝著名醫藥學家李時珍編寫《本草綱目》的故事。李時珍不畏艱險, 翻山越嶺, 甚至冒著生命危險, 親自嘗試草藥, 以了解藥效。經過27年的努力, 最終寫成了歷史上的醫藥學巨著。李時珍的奮斗史充分說明:只要不斷努力, 堅持不懈, 就能達成自己設定的人生奮斗目標, 就能取得輝煌的成績。
           
            3. 嚴謹態度教育
           
            初中歷史七年級下冊第9課《民族政權并立的時代》中, 著名軍事家岳飛治軍嚴格, 所謂“凍死不拆屋, 餓死不擄掠”。意思是說岳飛要求軍中將士, 即使凍死也不能破壞老百姓的房屋來取暖, 即使餓死也不能搶奪老百姓的食物來吃。岳飛的軍隊紀律性強, 因而其戰斗力很強。課本中還說, 金軍很懼怕岳飛的軍隊, 稱“撼山易, 撼岳家軍難”, 從一個側面說明無論是組織或是個人, 只有嚴格要求, 紀律嚴明, 才能體現出強大的能量。
           
            初中歷史七年級上冊第22課《承上啟下的魏晉南北朝文化 (二) 》中, 對王羲之從小練習書法的故事有細致的描寫。教材中說, 王羲之七歲開始練習書法, 非常專心, 勤學苦練。他每天練完字后都要在門前的池塘里清洗毛筆, 久而久之, 門前池塘的水都變黑了。最終, 王羲之成了歷史上一代書圣。這則歷史故事充分說明了學習上要有嚴謹的態度, 要持之以恒, 這樣才能最終駛向成功的彼岸。
           
            二、世界歷史上的思想品德教育
           
            1. 努力成才教育
           
            初中歷史九年級上冊第20課《人類邁進“電氣時代”》, 介紹了大發明家愛迪生發明燈泡的努力過程。家族貧窮的愛迪生為了尋找燈絲材料, 想方設法, 遍及不同地方, 還撿拾過別人廢棄的材料當自己的實驗用品。經過成千上萬次的試驗, 終于找到了電燈泡所需要的燈絲。
           
            正如教材引用的愛迪生的名言“天才是1%的靈感加99%的汗水”, 只有付出努力, 辛勤勞動, 才能取得偉大的成功。這句話可以作為學校的德育宣傳標語、學生的座佑銘。初中生無論家庭富裕或是貧窮, 能在一起上學, 其所接受的教育是平等的, 勤奮努力成為提升成績的關鍵。
           
            2. 探索真理教育
           
            初中歷史九年級上冊第22課《科學和思想的力量》, 教材介紹了達爾文在巨大的社會思想壓力下, 通過環球考察不斷探索, 發現了物種起源和發展的規律。他提出的人類進化理論, 打破了“上帝造人”的統治思想, 從神權的禁錮下找到真理。他的不斷探索的勇氣和敢于批判的精神, 具有很強的感召力。
           
            總之, 初中歷史蘊涵著大量的德育素材和德育道理, 它們指向初中德育課的教學內容。其中, 有的是直接內容, 有的起補充作用, 有的是借鑒參考的依據。為此, 初中歷史教師應該在傳授知識的同時滲透德育, 善于引導學生理解德育道理;同時, 初中德育課教師也應該多了解包括歷史在內的其他學科的教材內容, 善于從中選擇、發掘德育素材, 豐富補充德育資源, 幫助理解德育內容, 從而共同為學生的成長服務。
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