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          探索運用鋼琴重奏開展音樂教育教學活動的策略
          發布時間:2019-08-07

            摘要:在鋼琴藝術的發展中, 鋼琴演奏不再局限于獨立表現音樂, 而要聆聽、感受、相互配合, 這使得鋼琴演奏者面臨更高的綜合能力與素養要求, 不僅要學會鋼琴獨奏演奏, 還要學會重奏、伴奏等。因此, 重奏教學隨之進入人們的視野, 鋼琴重奏也在高校音樂教育中得到廣泛運用, 需要高校音樂教師認識鋼琴重奏的重要作用, 探索運用鋼琴重奏開展音樂教育教學活動的策略, 提高學生綜合素質。

            關鍵詞:高校; 音樂教育; 鋼琴重奏; 運用;

            在西方,鋼琴重奏廣受歡迎,以前只出現在教堂和小型劇場、家庭音樂聚會等。隨著社會的進步和發展,現代鋼琴重奏已經和場所無關,人們隨時都能按照各自的喜好感受鋼琴重奏的無窮魅力。雖然鋼琴重奏演奏風格不如交響樂宏偉,不如搖滾樂激情澎湃,但其音色十分豐富,善于挖掘音樂樂譜的表現情感以及人的音樂感受,研究如何將其運用于高校音樂教育對提升學生鋼琴演奏技巧和綜合素質具有重要意義。

          音樂教育

            一、鋼琴重奏在高校音樂教育中運用的重要性

            鋼琴重奏指的是有鋼琴參與的一種或者多種器樂演奏活動,一般包括純鋼琴重奏、鋼琴和弦樂重奏這兩種,前者是指演奏活動中只有鋼琴這一種樂器,基于四手聯彈、八手聯彈和雙鋼琴等形式實現重奏,后者是指鋼琴和弦樂器的重奏,例如鋼琴和大提琴、中提琴、小提琴等。最近幾年,國家逐漸提升對音樂教育改革重要性的認識,在音樂教學中運用鋼琴重奏,不僅能有效培養學生學習演奏鋼琴的興趣,還能促使學生掌握豐富的音樂知識[1].針對鋼琴教學,合奏不管是音響效果抑或是現場感染力都比獨奏更強,并且從學生的角度看,他們對合奏有更濃厚的興趣,運用鋼琴重奏充分調動學生的興趣與積極性,鍛煉學生鋼琴演奏能力。與此同時,鋼琴重奏讓音樂教育的曲目更加多樣化,有效拓展學生的音樂知識與藝術視野。另外,重奏演奏能讓學生使用多樂器協作的方式成功演奏難度較大的曲目,提升自信。

            二、鋼琴重奏在高校音樂教育中運用的策略建議

            (一)設定科學的重奏教學規劃

            一方面,科學選擇教材。高校音樂教師應以豐富鋼琴教學資源為前提,基于實踐經驗選用系統性的鋼琴實用教材,重視引導學生學習鋼琴重奏理論知識及相關音樂背景等,并根據學生實際情況引入鋼琴重奏,先選用一些風格迥異、短小精悍的曲目組織學生進行針對性重奏練習,激發其學習興趣。接下來從學生的學習情況著手,選擇其他擴展性曲目,體驗風格不同的曲目重奏表演,幫助學生拓寬音樂視野,提高鋼琴重奏知識水平,同時為學生今后的音樂學習與發展奠定堅實基礎。

            另一方面,科學安排學時。教師設定的鋼琴重奏學時應具有靈活性,如果運用鋼琴重奏的學時太少,就很難保證鋼琴重奏教學的效果,學生們也難以全面了解、掌握鋼琴重奏的相關知識與技能,對學生保持鋼琴重奏學習興趣極為不利。因此,教師要根據自身教學水平科學安排學時,在初期的鋼琴重奏運用環節,可設定一學年的學時,每周一個課時比較合適。對于鋼琴重奏教學人數,通常以2~3人為宜,即按照學生掌握鋼琴樂器的程度和曲目教學方式,把全班學生分成多個小組,提高鋼琴重奏練習的針對性、實效性。教師也可讓表現優良的學生帶動其他學生學習,提高使用音樂教學資源和鋼琴重奏資源的效率。

            (二)實行民族化鋼琴重奏教學

            國家倡導文化教育,提倡繼承優秀傳統文化,因而高校音樂教師在運用鋼琴重奏時也應響應國家號召,強化鋼琴和民族樂器的合作,并以鋼琴協奏的身份參與和民族器樂的合作[2].例如鋼琴和揚琴協奏曲《狂想曲》、鋼琴和琵琶協奏曲《花木蘭》、鋼琴和古箏協奏曲《楓橋夜泊》、鋼琴和二胡協奏曲《紅梅隨想曲》等等。通過中西樂器合作演奏,教師引導學生在鋼琴獨奏學習中自然融入民族音樂,融合中西技法,接觸更多民族音樂的內容。

            彈奏民族風格的中國重奏作品時還應注意音樂的語調、韻律,語言聲韻就是中國鋼琴音樂作品的重要特色。民族音樂旋律走向和聲韻變化息息相關,教師在教學中應提醒兩位演奏者注意呼吸與分句的變化,使其相互呼應、相互襯托;注重旋律部分,針對樂句做出拖腔對比與變化,清晰表達民族曲調韻律。對于鋼琴重奏技術,在彈奏民族作品時要合理轉移手指的力量,積極配合手腕與手臂,內心彈奏氣息也應跟上,體會內在韻律,積極投入到對中國雙鋼琴、四手聯彈和鋼琴、民族樂器的重奏作品的探索,結合中國優秀傳統文化與西方鋼琴理論,依托民族化的鋼琴重奏教學內容讓學生加深對鋼琴重奏曲目的理解,把握鋼琴重奏風格與技術技巧,提升音樂素養。

            (三)充分運用多媒體數碼技術

            在當今的網絡信息時代,計算機技術在教育領域得到普及應用,形成多媒體數碼教學技術。為保持高校音樂教學的與時俱進,不斷促進其改革創新,教師在運用鋼琴重奏時要充分發揮多媒體數碼技術的作用,創新重奏教學方式。具體而言,教師可通過計算機網絡管理學生,指導他們進行鋼琴合奏練習。在該過程中,教師可指定幾位同學基于多媒體數碼技術把鋼琴的功能模擬出來,合奏曲目,其他學生認真傾聽示范合奏,完成演奏之后讓學生們一起討論合奏的優缺點,提高他們對音樂的鑒賞能力。教師還可運用多媒體數碼技術播放鋼琴與其他樂器合奏的效果,讓學生加深對樂器的認識、感受,在鋼琴重奏學習中對比不同樂器的演奏效果,發現差距,提升樂感。

            三、結語

            隨著國家越來越重視素質教育,現代音樂教育教學體系的改革與創新具有可行性、發展性,作為一線高校音樂教師有責任也有義務做出改變,設定科學的重奏教學規劃,積極實行民族化鋼琴重奏教學,并充分運用多媒體數碼技術,推進鋼琴重奏教學改革,實現對鋼琴重奏的充分合理運用,在提高學生的鋼琴獨奏能力的同時培養他們的鋼琴合奏能力以及團隊協作意識,促使學生全面發展,成為高素質人才。

            參考文獻
            [1] 郭瑾蓉。鋼琴重奏在高校鋼琴教學中的重要性[J].北方音樂, 2018, 23:152-153.
            [2] 于兆林。芻議高校鋼琴教育與學生音樂素養的培養[J].中國校外教育, 2017, 33:162-163.

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